Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth as well as the last Guru of Sikhs who had transformed the religious sect of Sikhism into a military brotherhood. After the invasion of Ahmed Shah Abdali and Nadir Shah, the Sikhs consolidated their military strength in midst of confusion and disorder after invasion. This led to emergence of Sikh power aided by strong military. The British East India Company, which is also referred to as “John Company”, was formed as a Joint- Stock Company that was established as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, in 1600. That was the time when other trading companies, that were established by the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Danish were active in the region. Under colonialism, Indian peasantry was impoverished and suffered from variety of problems like high rents, arbitrary evictions, illegal tax levies and unpaid labour renumerations in zamindari regions. Eventually, the peasants started to resist this exploitation and took desperate measures at several places.
Europeans in India
The Europeans and Indians commercial contact has a long history. But it was in the end of fifteenth century, that India began to be seen as an attractive destination by the Europeans. Initially these trading Europeans only had commercial interests but by passage of time they indulged in the political affairs.
The Marathas rose to power under Shivaji. He was born at Shivner Fort in 1627. His father was Shahji Bhonsle and mother was Jijabai. He inherited the Jagir of Poona from his father. He conquered many forts like, Kondana, Chakan, Toran, Purandhar, Rajgarh, Supa and Panhala.
Sufi and Bhakti Movement
The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism. It originated in the seventh-century Tamil south India (now parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala), and spread northwards.
Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire. He was related to Timur from his father’s side and Chengiz Khan to his mother’s side. His original name was Zahiruddin Muhammad. He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first Battle of Panipat in 1526 and established Mughal rule in India. The Vijayanagar Empire was established by Harihar and Bukka in 1336 AD. When they set up this principality, Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the Sultan in Delhi. India was invaded by the Muslim rulers of Middle East repeatedly between 1000 AD and 1200 AD before the foundation of Delhi Sultanate was formed. During later Vedic period, the concepts related to nature of soul and cosmic principle, or the Atman and Brahman developed in form of six different schools of philosophies. these are known as ‘Shada Darshan‘.
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