It was one of the greatest empires recorded in India history. The rule of Mauryas lasted from 322 – 185 B.C. where majority of India was united as a single state by the great founder emperor Chandragupta Maurya. With the help of Kautilya or Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya laid the foundation of this vast empire.
The history of India is so vivid that it will be unfair to omit such small yet very important details about the developments that occurred before the establishment of the greatest empires in India, the Mauryan empire. The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to 5500 BCE
Motions of the Earth
The Earth shows two types of motions which leads to seasons and day-night patterns. These motion are – rotation around its own axis and revolution about the Sun.
Earthquake and Seismic Waves
The study of seismic activity gives valuable information about the interior structure of the Earth. Earthquake is a natural event and involves shaking of the ground. A thorough study and observations of this phenomenon has helped in understanding of innermost parts where this occurs . An Earthquake is the shaking or vibration/tremors in the Crust, caused as a result of internal forces and vulcanism in the Earth. It is given fact that the radius of earth is 6,370 km. Therefore, the interior of Earth can not be studied only by direct observations. But its properties are studied indirectly by deducing conclusions from the study of earthquake waves that propagate through the interior rocks and other such indirect means.
It is widely believed that Rights and Duties are two sides of a coin. There are no rights without duties, no duties without rights. In fact, rights are born in a world of Duties. A major difference between the fundamental rights and duties mentioned in the Indian constitution is that- while fundamental rights are justiciable, fundamental duties are non justiciable in nature – which means if a citizen does not performs his/her fundamental duties, they can still enjoy the fundamental rights enshrined the Indian constitution.
Making of Constitution
The Constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly which was constituted in 1946 under the Cabinet Mission Plan. There were proposed 292 members of the Constituent Assembly to be indirectly elected by the members of the existing Provincial Assemblies by the method of proportional representation with single transferable vote. In addition, there were 93 members nominated by the rulers of the Princely States. Seats in each province were distributed among three main communities- General, Muslim, Sikh proportional to their population.
Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens
‘Fundamental Rights’ are recognised to ensure physical, mental and moral development of every citizen. Fundamental Rights provide standards of conduct, citizenship, justice and fair play .Fundamental Rights generate a feeling of security amongst the minorities in the country.They establish framework of ‘democratic legitimacy’ for the rule of the majority. In our Constitution, Fundamental Rights are enumerated in Part III from Article 14 to 32. India has a parliamentary democracy. There is a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister who enjoys the real powers and is responsible to the Parliament,which is elected by the people by universal adult franchise. The Indian Constitution provides for Fundamental Rights which are Justiciable. There is a mention of the Fundamental Duties which have been added to the Constitution later. India just has single citizenship. The Directive Principles of State Policy give a concrete shape to the welfare state.
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